For your convenience, references throughout the site have been compiled in one area. These are to assist you throughout your endeavors.

Pentostatin

Maloisel F, Benboubker L, Gardembas M, Coiffier B, Divine M, Sebban C, Blanc M, Abgrall JF, Lederlin P, Harousseau JL, Blaise AM, Grosbois B, Morice P, Ghandour C, Castaigne S. (2003) Long-term outcome with pentostatin treatment in hairy cell leukemia patients. A French retrospective study of 238 patients. Leukemia 17:45-51.

Johnston JB, Eisenhauer E, Wainman N, Corbett WE, Zaentz SD, Daeninck PJ. (2000) Long-term outcome following treatment of hairy cell leukemia with pentostatin (Nipent): a National Cancer Institute of Canada study. Seminars in Oncology 27(2 Suppl 5):32-36.

Rafel M, Cervantes F, Beltrán JM, Zuazu F, Hernández Nieto L, Rayón C, García Talavera J, Montserrat E. (2000) Deoxycoformycin in the treatment of patients with hairy cell leukemia: results of a Spanish collaborative study of 80 patients. Cancer 88:352-357.

Ribeiro P, Bouaffia F, Peaud PY, Blanc M, Salles B, Salles G, Coiffier B. (1999) Long term outcome of patients with hairy cell leukemia treated with pentostatin. Cancer 85:65-71.

Grever M, Kopecky K, Foucar MK, Head D, Bennett JM, Hutchison RE, Corbett WE, Cassileth PA, Habermann T, Golomb H, Rai K, Eisenhauer E, Appelbaum F, Cheson BD. (1995) Randomized comparison of pentostatin versus interferon alfa-2a in previously untreated patients with hairy cell leukemia: an intergroup study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 13:974-982.

Golomb HM, Dodge R, Mick R, Budman D, Hutchison R, Horning SJ, Schiffer CA. (1994) Pentostatin treatment for hairy cell leukemia patients who failed initial therapy with recombinant alpha-interferon: a report of CALGB study 8515. Leukemia 8:2037-2040.

Cassileth PA, Cheuvart B, Spiers AS, Harrington DP, Cummings FJ, Neiman RS, Bennett JM, O’Connell MJ. (1991) Pentostatin induces durable remissions in hairy cell leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology 9:243-246.

Cladribine

Robak T, Jamroziak K, Gora-Tybor J, Blonski JZ, Kasznicki M, Dwilewicz-Trojaczek J, Wiater E, Zdunczyk A, Dybowicz J, Dmoszynska A, Wojtaszko M, Zdziarska B, Calbecka M, Kostyra A, Hellmann A, Lewandowski K, Stella-Holowiecka B, Sulek K, Gawronski K, Skotnicki AB, Nowak W, Zawilska K, Molendowicz-Portala L, Kloczko J, Sokolowski J, Warzocha K, Seferynska I, Ceglarek B, Konopka L.(2007) Cladribine in a weekly versus daily schedule for untreated active hairy cell leukemia: final report from the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG) of a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Blood 109:3672-3675.

Chadha P, Rademaker AW, Mendiratta P, Kim B, Evanchuk DM, Hakimian D, Peterson LC, Tallman MS.(2005) Treatment of hairy cell leukemia with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA): long-term follow-up of the Northwestern University experience. Blood 106:241-246.

Jehn U, Bartl R, Dietzfelbinger H, Haferlach T, Heinemann V. (2004) An update: 12-year follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukemia following treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. Leukemia 18:1476-1481.

Zinzani PL, Tani M, Marchi E, Stefoni V, Alinari L, Musuraca G, Gabriele A, Pileri S, Baccarani M. (2004) Long-term follow-up of front-line treatment of hairy cell leukemia with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. Haematologica 89:309-313.

Goodman GR, Burian C, Koziol JA, Saven A. (2003) Extended follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukemia after treatment with cladribine. Journal of Clinical Oncology 21:891-896.

Tetreault SA, Robbins BA, Saven A. (1999). Treatment of hairy cell leukaemia-variant with cladribine. Leukemia and Lymphoma 35:347-354

Cheson BD, Sorensen JM, Vena DA, Montello MJ, Barrett JA, Damasio E, Tallman M, Annino L, Connors J, Coiffier B, Lauria F. (1998) Treatment of hairy cell leukemia with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine via the Group C protocol mechanism of the National Cancer Institute: a report of 979 patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology 16:3007-3015.

Hoffman MA, Janson D, Rose E, Rai KR. (1997) Treatment of hairy-cell leukemia with cladribine: response, toxicity, and long-term follow-up. Journal of Clinical Oncology 15:1138-1142.

Tallman MS, Hakimian D, Rademaker AW, Zanzig C, Wollins E, Rose E, Peterson LC. (1996) Relapse of hairy cell leukemia after 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine: long-term follow-up of the Northwestern University experience. Blood 88:1954-1959.

Estey EH, Kurzrock R, Kantarjian HM, O’Brien SM, McCredie KB, Beran M, Koller C, Keating MJ, Hirsch-Ginsberg C, Huh YO, et al. (1992) Treatment of hairy cell leukemia with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA). Blood 79:882-887.

Both Agents

Dearden CE, Else M, Catovsky D. (2011) Long-term results for pentostatin and cladribine treatment of hairy cell leukemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma 52 Suppl 2:21-4.

Else M, Dearden CE, Matutes E, Garcia-Talavera J, Rohatiner AZS, Johnson SAN, O’Connor NTJ, Haynes A, Osuji N, Forconi F, Lauria F, Catovsky D. (2009) Long-term follow-up of 233 patients with hairy cell leukaemia, treated initially with pentostatin or cladribine, at a median of 16 years from diagnosis. British Journal of Haematology 145:733-740.

Else M, Ruchlemer R, Osuji N, Del Giudice I, Matutes E, Woodman A, Wotherspoon A, Swansbury J, Dearden C, Catovsky D. (2005) Long remissions in hairy cell leukemia with purine analogs: a report of 219 patients with a median follow-up of 12.5 years. Cancer 104:2442-2448.

Rituximab as a Single Agent

Zenhausern R, Von Rohr A, Rufibach K, Solenthaler M, Meyer-Monard S, Gratwohl A, Hess U, Bargetzi MJ, Kovacsovic T, Leoncini L, Tobler A. (2009) Low dose 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine given as a single subcutaneous injection in patients with hairy cell leukemia – a multicentre trial SAKK 32/95. Leukemia & Lymphoma 16:1-4.

Thomas DA, O’Brien S, Bueso-Ramos C, Faderl S, Keating MJ, Giles FJ, Cortes J, Kantarjian HM. (2003) Rituximab in relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia. Blood 102:3906-3911.

Nieva J, Bethel K, Saven A. (2003) Phase 2 study of rituximab in the treatment of cladribine-failed patients with hairy cell leukemia. Blood 102:810-813.

Hagberg H, Lundholm L. (2001) Rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of hairy cell leukaemia. British Journal of Haematology 115:609-611.

Lauria F, Lenoci M, Annino L, Raspadori D, Marotta G, Bocchia M, Forconi F, Gentili S, La Manda M, Marconcini S, Tozzi M, Baldini L, Zinzani PL, Foà R. (2001) Efficacy of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (Mabthera) in patients with progressed hairy cell leukemia. Haematologica 86:1046-1050.

Zinzani PL, Ascani S, Piccaluga PP, Bendandi M, Pileri S, Tura S. (2000) Efficacy of rituximab in hairy cell leukemia treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology 18:3875-3877.

Either Purine Analog in Combination with Rituximab

Kreitman, R. J., Wilson, W., Calvo, K. R., Arons, E., Roth, L., Sapolsky, J., Zhou, H., Raffeld, M., and Stetler-Stevenson, M. (2013) Cladribine with immediate rituximab for the treatment of patients with variant hairy cell leukemia, Clin Cancer Res, 19: 6873-6881.

Burotto, M., Stetler-Stevenson, M., Arons, E., Zhou, H., Wilson, W., and Kreitman, R. J. (2013) Bendamustine and Rituximab in Relapsed and Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia, Clin Cancer Res, 19: 6313-6321.

Else M, Dearden CE, Matutes E, Forconi F, Lauria F, Ahmad H, Kelly S, Liyanage A, Ratnayake V, Shankari J, Whalley I, Catovsky D. (2011) Rituximab with pentostatin or cladribine: an effective combination treatment for hairy cell leukemia after disease recurrence. Leukemia & Lymphoma 52 Suppl 2:75-8.

Ravandi F, O’Brien S, Jorgensen J, Pierce S, Faderl S, Ferrajoli A, Koller C, Challagundla P, York S, Brandt M, Luthra R, Burger J, Thomas D, Keating M, Kantarjian H. (2011) Phase 2 study of cladribine followed by rituximab in patients with hairy cell leukemia. Blood. 2011 Oct 6;118(14):3818-23. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-04-351502. Epub 2011 Aug 5.

Cervetti G, Galimberti S, Andreazzoli F, Fazzi R, Cecconi N, Caracciolo F, Petrini M. (2008) Rituximab as treatment for minimal residual disease in hairy cell leukaemia: extended follow-up. British Journal of Haematology 143,296-298.

Else M, Osuji N, Forconi F, Dearden C, Del Giudice I, Matutes E, Wotherspoon A, Lauria F, Catovsky D.(2007) The role of rituximab in combination with pentostatin or cladribine for the treatment of relapsed/refractory hairy cell leukaemia. Cancer 110:2240-2247.

Ravandi F, Jorgensen JL, O’Brien SM, Verstovsek S, Koller CA, Faderl S, Giles FJ, Ferrajoli A, Wierda WG, Odinga S, Huang X, Thomas DA, Freireich EJ, Jones D, Keating MJ, Kantarjian HM. (2006) Eradication of minimal residual disease in hairy cell leukemia. Blood 107:4658-4662.

Immunotoxins

Kreitman RJ, Wilson WH, Bergeron K, Raggio M, Stetler-Stevenson M, FitzGerald DJ, Pastan I. (2001) Efficacy of the anti-CD22 recombinant immunotoxin BL22 in chemotherapy-resistant hairy-cell leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 345:241-247.

Disease Landmarks, Classification, Biology and Guidelines

Jones G, Parry-Jones N, Wilkins B, Else M, Catovsky D. (2012) Revised Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Hairy Cell Leukaemia and Hairy cell Leukaemia Variant. Compiled on Behalf of the Clinical Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. British Journal of Haematology 156:186-195.

Tiacci E, Trifonov V, Schiavoni G, Holmes A, Kern W, Martelli MP, Pucciarini A, Bigerna B, Pacini R, Wells VA, Sportoletti P, Pettirossi V, Mannucci R, Elliott O, Liso A, Ambrosetti A, Pulsoni A, Forconi F, Trentin L, Semenzato G, Inghirami G, Capponi M, Di Raimondo F, Patti C, Arcaini L, Musto P, Pileri S, Haferlach C, Schnittger S, Pizzolo G, Foà R, Farinelli L, Haferlach T, Pasqualucci L, Rabadan R, Falini B. (2011) BRAF mutations in hairy-cell leukemia.  N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 16;364(24):2305-15.

Foucar K, Falini B, Catovsky D, Stein H. (2008) Hairy Cell Leukaemia. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL et al, eds. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon: IARC Press.

Matutes E, Wotherspoon A, Catovsky D. (2003) The variant form of hairy-cell leukaemia. Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology 16:41-56.

Piro LD, Carrera CJ, Carson DA, Beutler E. (1990) Lasting remissions in hairy-cell leukemia induced by a single infusion of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. New England Journal of Medicine 322:1117-1121.

Spiers AS, Parekh SJ, Bishop MB. (1984) Hairy-cell leukemia: induction of complete remission with pentostatin (2′-deoxycoformycin). Journal of Clinical Oncology 2:1336-1342.

Consensus resolution: proposed criteria for evaluation of response to treatment in hairy cell leukemia (Anonymous). (1987) Leukemia 1:405.

Golomb HM, Catovsky D, Golde DW. (1978) Hairy cell leukemia: a clinical review based on 71 cases. Annals of Internal Medicine 89:677-683.

Bouroncle, B.A., Wiseman, B.K., Doan, C.A. (1958) Leukemic reticuloendotheliosis. Blood 13:609-630.

General References

Arons, E., Adams, S., Pastan, I., and Kreitman, R. J. (2014) Class II human leukocyte antigen DRB1*11 in hairy cell leukaemia patients with and without haemolytic uremic syndrome, Br J Haematol, 166: 729-738.

Sivina, M., Kreitman, R. J., Arons, E., Buggy, J. J., Ravandi, F., and Burger, J. A. (2014) The bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib (PCI-32765) blocks hairy cell leukaemia survival, proliferation and B cell receptor signalling: a new therapeutic approach, Br J Haematol, 166: 177-188.

Tiacci E, Schiavoni G, Forconi F, Santi A, Trentin L, Ambrosetti A, Cecchini D, Sozzi E, Francia di Celle P, Di Bello C, Pulsoni A, Foà R, Inghirami G, Falini B. (2012) Simple genetic diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia by sensitive detection of the BRAF-V600E mutation. Blood. 2012 Jan 5;119(1):192-5

Kreitman RJ, Polliack A, and Grever MR. Treatment of Hairy Cell Leukemia In It’s Second Half Century. Leukemia & Lymphoma June 2011 Vol 52,Supplement 2

Robak T. (2011) Hairy-cell leukemia variant: recent view on diagnosis, biology and treatment. Cancer Treat Rev. 2011 Feb;37(1):3-10.

Grever MR.  Hairy Cell Leukemia: A 50 Year Report on Clinical Research. Leukemia & Lymphoma October 2009 Vol 50, Issue Supplement 1

Else M, Dearden CE, Matutes E, Garcia-Talavera J, Rohatiner AZ, Johnson SA, O’Connor NT, Haynes A, Osuji N, Forconi F and others. Long-term follow-up of 233 patients with hairy cell leukaemia, treated initially with pentostatin or cladribine, at a median of 16 years from diagnosis. Br J Haematol 2009.

Kreitman RJ, Stetler-Stevenson M, Margulies I, Noel P, FitzGerald DJP, Wilson WH, Pastan I. Phase II trial of recombinant immunotoxin RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22) in patients with hairy cell leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2009: in press.

Piris M, Foucar K, Mollejo M, Campo E, Falini B. (2008) Splenic B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia, unclassifiable. In: WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Ed: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Vardiman JW. IARC Press, Lyon

Matutes E. Immunophenotyping and differential diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin N Amer 2006; 20:1051+.

Pastan I, Hassan R, FitzGerald DJP, Kreitman RJ. Immunotoxin therapy of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2006; 6:559-65.

Ravandi F, Jorgensen JL, O’Brien S M, Verstovsek S, Koller CA, Faderl S, Giles FJ, Ferrajoli A, Wierda WG, Odinga S and others. Eradication of minimal residual disease in hairy cell leukemia. Blood 2006;107:4658-62.

Else M, Ruchlemer R, Osuji N, DelGiudice I, Matutes E, Woodman A, Wotherspoon A, Swansbury J, Dearden C, Catovsky D. Long remissions in hairy cell leukemia with purine analogs – A report of 219 patients with a median follow-up of 12.5 years. Cancer 2005; 104:2442-2448.

Kreitman RJ, Squires DR, Stetler-Stevenson M, Noel P, Fitzgerald DJ, Wilson WH, Pastan I. Phase I trial of recombinant immunotoxin RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22) in patients with B-cell malignancies. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:6719-29.

Decker T, Oelsner M, Kreitman RJ, Salvatore G, Wang QC, Pastan I, Peschel C, Licht T. Induction of Caspase-Dependent Programmed Cell Death in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by Anti-CD22 Immunotoxins. Blood 2004; 103:2718-26.

Jehn U, Bartl R, Dietzfelbinger H, Haferlach T, Heinemann V. An update: 12-year follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukemia following treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. Leukemia 2004; 18:1476-1481.

Goodman GR, Burian C, Koziol JA, Saven A. Extended follow-up of patients with hairy cell leukemia after treatment with cladribine. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21:891-6.

Matutes E, Wotherspoon A, Catovsky D. The variant form of hairy-cell leukaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2003; 16:41-56.

Nieva J, Bethel K, Saven A. Phase 2 study of rituximab in the treatment of cladribine-failed patients with hairy cell leukemia. Blood 2003; 102:810-813.

Salvatore G, Beers R, Margulies I, Kreitman RJ, Pastan I. Improved Cytotoxic activity towards cell lines and fresh leukemia cells of a mutant anti-CD22 immunotoxin obtained by antibody phage display. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8:995-1002.

Kreitman RJ, Wilson WH, Bergeron K, Raggio M, Stetler-Stevenson M, FitzGerald DJ, Pastan I. Efficacy of the Anti-CD22 Recombinant Immunotoxin BL22 in Chemotherapy-Resistant Hairy-Cell Leukemia. New. Engl. J. Med. 2001; 345:241-247.

Kreitman RJ, Wilson WH, White JD, Stetler-Stevenson M, Jaffe ES, Waldmann TA, Pastan I. Phase I trial of recombinant immunotoxin Anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2) in patients with hematologic malignancies. J. Clin. Oncol. 2000; 18:1614-1636.

Kreitman RJ, Wilson WH, Robbins D, Margulies I, Stetler-Stevenson M, Waldmann TA, Pastan I.Responses in refractory hairy cell leukemia to a recombinant immunotoxin. Blood 1999; 94:3340-3348.

Seymour JF, Talpaz M, Kurzrock R. Response duration and recovery of CD4+ lymphocytes following deoxycoformycin in interferon-alpha-resistant hairy cell leukemia: 7- year follow-up. Leukemia 1997; 11:42-7.

Seymour JF, Kurzrock R, Freireich EJ, Estey EH. 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine induces durable remissions and prolonged suppression of CD4+ lymphocyte counts in patients with hairy cell leukemia. Blood 1994; 83:2906-11.

Yamaizumi M, Mekada E, Uchida T, Okada Y. One molecule of diphtheria toxin fragment A introduced into a cell can kill the cell. Cell 1978; 15:245-250.

Review Articles

Grever MR, Blachly JS, Andritsos LA. (2014) Hairy cell leukemia: Update on molecular profiling and therapeutic advances. Blood Rev 28:197-203.

Kreitman, R. J. (2013) Hairy cell leukemia-new genes, new targets, Curr Hematol Malig Rep, 8: 184-195.

Kreitman, R. J. (2012) Immunoconjugates and new molecular targets in hairy cell leukemia, Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2012: 660-666.

Grever M. (2010) How I treat hairy cell leukemia. Blood 115:21-28.

Kreitman RJ, Pastan I. (2006) Immunotoxins in the treatment of refractory hairy cell leukemia. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. 20:1137-1151, viii.

Robak T. (2006) Current treatment options in hairy cell leukemia and hairy cell leukemia variant. Cancer Treatment Review 32:365-376.

Lauria F, Forconi F. (2004) Towards the pharmacotherapy of hairy cell leukaemia. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 5:1523-1533.